Lactoferrin is present in milk and has several unique properties as it is used as a nutraceutical. One of the important functions of lactoferrin is its inhibitory effect. Lactoferrin (LF) is known for its anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, antiinflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. It stops the growth of different harmful bacteria. There is a wide range of pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites) against which LF is capable of performing the antimicrobial activity. Lactoferrin involves the up and downregulation of immune system. Lactoferrin is a cell mediator and plays crucial role in innate and adaptive immune responses. All the immunomodulatory properties of lactoferrin are proved after many in vivo studies. Lactoferrin is obtained from different sources as human lactoferrin and bovine lactoferrin. Bovine lactoferrin is mostly known for its anti-bacterial activity. Lactoferrin is important protein present in milk after casein. Lactoferrin has also anti-viral activity against those viruses that are wrapped in an outermost layer made from plasma membrane. Phagocytic activity of lactoferrin is increased in the presence of some viruses. Lactoferrin has many other activities like it has affinity to bind with different substances and compounds like lipopolysaccharides. Antibiotic consumption in animals can be reduced by using lactoferrin. Lactoferrin has potential to act as natural therapies that can be used in several research fields. Lactoferrin helps in the regulation of apoptosis and helps to limit the reactive oxygen to prevent the destruction of biomembranes.
Anum Mukhtar Lodhi, Pakeeza Aslam, Kainat Sajid and Zainab Zulfiqar