Zinc is concentrated especially in the aleurone and embryo sections of wheat grain. The endosperm (white flour) has a very low Zn concentration; while the endosperm contains about 10 mg Zn per kg, the embryo and aleurone layer may contain over 100 mg Zn kg1. Wheat grain is often eaten after milling, which eliminates the Zn-rich portions of the grain and leaves only the Zn-deficient endosperm. Typical white wheat flour contains around 5–10 mg Zn per kg, depending on the extraction rate, and these concentrations are insufficient to satisfy the dietary requirement for Zn. Furthermore, wheat grain contains compounds like phytate and phenolic compounds that reduce Zn bioavailability and inhibit intestinal absorption.